The RE Light Railway Companies

Railways

Although the British army on the Western Front used the French standard gauge railways to move men, equipment and supplies along the lines of communication from the Channel Ports to the Divisional railheads from the earliest days of the Great War, it relied largely on horsed transport and manual effort to move it from the railhead to the front lines. The formation of the RE Light Railways companies in early 1917 was innovation that was one of the factors that transformed the operational abilities of the army. Goods and men could now make the last leg of the journey to the front by light rail. Until that time, ammunition supply in particular had been subject to delays and required vast numbers of men and horses, and the light railways helped overcome both problems. Traffic and wear on the roads and tracks leading up to the front was eased, and fewer men were required to repair them.

The first use of light rail in France

The Light Railway Companies came into existence when it became clear that the maintenance of roads was becoming a severe problem, in terms of the manpower needed and enormous quantities of road stone clogging up the supply routes. In February 1916 the first new light railways were sanctioned.

The first light railway worked by the British was a French one. It had a track gauge of 60cm (2 feet), and this was subsequently applied to all light railways constructed by the army. The British system developed tracks that were prefabricated in lengths, that were in themselves of light weight. They could be easily carried and laid quickly, and with minimal preparation of the ground. For lengths of rail that were going to be more permanent, they were laid like full-size tracks, with sleepers and stone ballast. Special units were formed for the construction, maintenance and operation of the new system.

The Light Railway Operating Company RE

The Company consisted of approximately 200 men, in a number of trades: Drivers, Brakesmen, Guards, Wagon Repairers, Repair Shop Engineers, Traffic controllers and Storesmen. There were few officers among this number (for example, the 31st LROC was commanded by a Captain). The job of the type of Company was to run the trains, with the tracks being laid by RE Railway Construction Companies - often with the assistance of whatever Labour Corps Company or "resting" infantry were at hand.

The Companies

Company Raised Embarked Theatre War Diary Date from Date to
1st Operating Longmoor 24.1.17 F & F N/A N/A N/A
2nd Operating Longmoor 4.2.17 F & F WO 95/4056 10.18 3.19
3rd Operating Longmoor 9.2.17 F & F N/A N/A N/A
4th Operating Longmoor 23.2.17 F & F N/A N/A N/A
6th Operating Longmoor 26.2.17 F & F WO 95/4056 2.17 11.18
7th Operating (South African) Bordon 18.3.17 F & F N/A N/A N/A
8th Operating (South African) Bordon 18.3.17 F & F N/A N/A N/A
9th Operating Longmoor 12.3.17 F & F N/A N/A N/A
10th Operating Longmoor 12.3.17 F & F N/A N/A N/A
11th Operating Longmoor 17.5.17 F & F N/A N/A N/A
12th Operating Longmoor 11.5.17 F & F WO 95/4056 4.17 10.18
13th Operating (Canadian) Bordon 9.6.17 F & F N/A N/A N/A
14th Operating Longmoor 22.5.17 F & F N/A N/A N/A
15th Operating (Australian) Bordon 16.12.18 F & F N/A N/A N/A
18th Train Crews Longmoor 6.2.17 F & F N/A N/A N/A
19th Train Crews Longmoor 16.2.17 F & F N/A N/A N/A
20th Train Crews Longmoor 18.3.17 F & F N/A N/A N/A
21st Train Crews Longmoor 27.3.17 F & F N/A N/A N/A
22nd Train Crews Longmoor 7.5.17 F & F N/A N/A N/A
23rd Misc. Trades Longmoor 10.3.17 F & F N/A N/A N/A
24th Misc. Trades Longmoor 17.5.17 F & F N/A N/A N/A
25th Workshop Longmoor 23.5.17 F & F N/A N/A N/A
26th Workshop Longmoor 12.3.17 F & F N/A N/A N/A
27th Workshop Longmoor 17.4.17 F & F N/A N/A N/A
28th Tractor Repair France N/A F & F N/A N/A N/A
29th Operating France N/A F & F N/A N/A N/A
30th Operating France N/A F & F N/A N/A N/A
31st Operating France 2.17 F & F WO 95/4056 2.17 5.19
32nd Operating France N/A F & F N/A N/A N/A
33rd Operating France N/A F & F WO 95/4056 3.17 5.17
34th Operating France N/A F & F WO 95/4056 2.17 5.19
96th Operating Longmoor 2.12.17 Egypt N/A N/A N/A
98th Operating Longmoor 17.12.17 Egypt N/A N/A N/A
107th Operating Salonica N/A Salonica N/A N/A N/A
109th Operating Longmoor 18.4.18 Italy N/A N/A N/A
133rd Operating Salonica N/A Salonica N/A N/A N/A
203rd Operating Egypt N/A Egypt N/A N/A N/A
231st Operating N/K N/K N/K WO 95/4056 10.18 6.19
232nd Operating N/K N/K N/K WO 95/4056 10.18 1.19
234th (Forward) France N/A F & F N/A N/A N/A
235th (Forward) France N/A F & F N/A N/A N/A
236th (Forward) France N/A F & F N/A N/A N/A
237th (Forward) France N/A F & F N/A N/A N/A
238th (Forward) France N/A F & F N/A N/A N/A
239th (Forward) France N/A F & F N/A N/A N/A
240th (Forward) France N/A F & F WO 95/4056 11.18 7.19

Railways

An example: 31st Light Railway Operating Company

Formed at Boulogne in late February and early March 1917, the Company moved to Maroeuil (on the River Scarpe and a standard railway line) north west of Arras, and built a Company HQ and camp there that remained until March 1918. Used an old cotton mill as base. On first arrival they took over about six of the standard workhorses of the light railways, the 20hp Simplex petrol locomotive.

Took over the operations of all light railways in the Arras area, supplying the front line and artillery units of Third Army. The main lines operated appear to have been the ones running out of Arras to the east, along the Scarpe valley towards the front line positions of Fampoux.

The main pick-up point for goods to be carried was called Q Dump. From there, ammunition, trench supplies, timber, men and a myriad other supplies would be carried forward. Men, wounded and salvage were the main cargoes for return journeys.

The men of the LROC enjoyed a considerable amount of individual freedom – quite necessary as they were charged with moving trains to and fro, getting them re-railed and repaired when accidents or break-downs occurred, etc. The officers and NCOs of the Company appear to have had a sensible attitude, that as long as men were back at camp when they should be, all was well. A simple recreation was going to the YMCA hut in nearby Etrun for a cup of tea.

The 31st worked the lines in front of Arras (including during the Battle of Arras in April 1917, when British artillery finally overcame its former supply difficulties and overwhelmed the enemy) until forced to move back in March and April 1918, when the enemy attacked in great force. The Third Army front was pushed back some way, but held. By May 1918, the 31st HQ was at Fosseux, a few miles further west of Arras, with the locomotives at Bernville. Much track had been lost to the enemy, and much more damaged, so the immediate task was to restore operating efficiency.

In August 1918, an Allied offensive opened that was to win the war. For the 31st, it meant many weeks of gradually extending the lines to keep up with the advancing armies, and all the time moving their centre of operations forward. The distance to be covered kept extending, as the attacking infantry moved much faster than the supply centres could move up. They moved first to the east of Arras, then further on to Bapaume, then Bourlon near Cambrai.