This section of the Long, Long Trail will be helpful for anyone wishing to find out about the history of the units of the Royal Engineers.
The war of 1914-1918 relied on engineering. Without engineers there would have been no supply to the armies, because the RE's maintained the railways, roads, water supply, bridges and transport. RE's also operated the railways and inland waterways. There would have been no communications, because the RE's maintained the telephones, wireless and other signalling equipment. There would have been little cover for the infantry and no positions for the artillery, because the RE's designed and built the front-line fortifications. It fell to the technically skilled RE's to develop responses to chemical and underground warfare. And finally, without the RE's the infantry and artillery would have soon been powerless, as they maintained the guns and other weapons. Little wonder that the Royal Engineers grew into a large and complex organisation.
Manpower: how big was the RE?
On 1 August 1914, the RE consisted of 1056 officers and 10394 men of the regular army and Special Reserve, plus another 513 and 13127 respectively serving with the RE of the Territorial Force. By the same date in 1917, it had grown to a total manpower of 295668. In other words, it was twelve times bigger than the peacetime establishment.
The Royal Engineers in 1914
The officers and men mentioned above in 1914 manned 26 coastal defence Fortress Companies (of which 15 were overseas); 15 Field Companies (2); 7 Signal Companies (1); 3 Survey Companies, 2 Railway Companies; 2 Cable and Airline (signalling) Companies and miscellaneous other units. There were also 9 Depot Companies carrying out training and administrative duties, as well as various Schools. The detailed sections below describe how these numbers and types of unit expanded during the war.
|The Fortress Companies|
|The Field and Signals Companies|
|The Field Survey Companies|
|The Special Companies (poison gas)|
|The Tunnelling Companies|
|The Railway Construction Companies|
|The Light Railway Companies|
|The Trench Tramway Companies|
|The Inland Waterways and Docks Companies|
|Other RE units|
|The RE depots and training units at home|
Royal Engineers bridging the Canal du Nord near Moeuvres, 28 September 1918. Image from the Imperial War Museum collection, with my thanks
The memorial to the Royal Engineers at the Marne river crossing at La Ferte-sous-Jouarre. Authors collection
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